Molecular phylogenetic inference of the howler monkey radiation (Primates: Alouatta)

howler monkey (Alouatta), which comprises between nine and 14 species and ranging from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, is the most widely distributed platyrrhines. Howlers previous phylogenetic studies have used chromosome and morphological characters and a number of molecular markers; However, the branching pattern of conflict between studies or remain unresolved. We do Alouatta new phylogenetic analysis using both concatenated and tree species coalescent-based approach is based on 14 areas of nuclear non-coding intergenic unlinked.

Our taxon sampling including five of seven South American species (Alouatta Caraya, Alouatta belzebul, Alouatta Guariba, Alouatta seniculus, Alouatta sara) and two introduced species of Mesoamerica (Alouatta Pigra, Alouatta palliata). Similarly to previous studies, our phylogeny was supported clade clade Mesoamerica and South America. To howlers South America, both methods of recovering the Atlantic Forest endemic A. Guariba as brothers all remaining South American species, albeit with moderate support. In addition, we did not find support for the sister previously proposed relationship between A. and A. belzebul Guariba. For the first time, a clade consisting of A. sara and A. Caraya identified.

The relationship between other howlers South America, however, is not fully supported. Our estimates of divergence times in Alouatta generally older than the estimate in the previous study. However, they correspond to recent studies suggest Miocene age for the Isthmus of Panama and to lift the northern Andes. Our results also point to an early genetic isolation A. Guariba in the Atlantic Forest, in agreement with the hypothesis of biotic exchange in the rainforests of South America in the Miocene. Collectively, these findings will contribute to a better understanding of the process of diversification between howler monkey species; However, they also indicate that further understanding of the evolutionary history of Alouatta radiation will depend on the expanded taxonomic, geographic, and genomic sampling.

molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of genotypes of Vibrio cholerae in Hillah, Iraq

Vibrio cholerae is a serious cause of endemic diarrhea associated with cholera in many areas of the world. A total of 256 stool and rectal swabs collected from patients suspected of having cholera treated in three hospitals in Hillah, Babylon Governorate, Iraq, for the period from September 1 to December 29, 2017. After a routine culture for the isolation and identification of samples V. cholerae isolates, PCR was performed for molecular detection of V. cholerae isolates by 16S ribosomal RNA gene.

Toxigenicity detected by RTX toxin gene. PCR technique emphasizes the molecular detection of V. cholerae for eight isolates. Only two isolates (25%) is owned rtxA and rtxC gene, while only three isolates (37.5%) owned rtxB gene. DNA sequencing is done for eight isolates through analysis and phylogenetic tree. Variants of bacteria were observed compared to the reference sequence homologous their neighbors using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Server BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool; https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi).

The findings indicate that the eight isolates of V. cholerae investigated positioned in three different phylogenetic position. Partial sequence reported dissimilarities between isolates GenBank accession number MK212155.1 and six are clustered GenBank accession numbers of the same species. For the first time in Babylon governorate, Iraq, the molecular test, sequencing and phylogenetic trees were reported for V. cholerae and their toxins isolated during cholera outbreak in 2017.

 Molecular phylogenetic inference of the howler monkey radiation (Primates: Alouatta)
Molecular phylogenetic inference of the howler monkey radiation (Primates: Alouatta)

Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus 2C Vietnam clade originated from dogs revealed new Asia-IV

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a small, single-stranded DNA viruses that cause fatal bleeding enteritis in dogs. Currently, CPV-2 classified as CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c is based on genetic variation in a gene VP2. CPV-2c variant has become ubiquitous throughout the world and attention to monitor the evolution of parvoviral. In this study, we characterized the full-length genome sequences of CPV-2c strain is obtained from 59 dogs in Vietnam.

Molecular analysis revealed that Vietnam CPV-2c share the same evolutionary pattern with the Asian CPV-2 clade, which is characterized by patterns of genetic signatures of structural and non-structural proteins. Moreover, this strain of CPV-2c Vietnam Thr112Ile and Ile447Met exhibited unique mutations in the VP1 and VP2 sequence, respectively. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis showed that the mutation of amino acid residues in both structural and nonstructural genes have contributed to the emergence of a new clade, designated here as the Asian clade-IV. Substitution rate, estimated from the dataset containing 199 sequences during the last 42 years, confirmed that the CPV-2 showed a high degree of nucleotide substitution, approximately 2.49 x 10-4 nucleotide substitutions per site per year (nt / s / y), with VP1 / 2 and NS1 / 2 estimate of 3.06 x 10-4 and 3.16 x 10-4 nt / s / y, respectively.

rno-let-7e-3p Primers

MPR00315 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7e-5p Primers

MPR00316 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

hsa-let-7e miRNA Inhibitor

MIH01013 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

hsa-let-7e miRNA Antagomir

MNH01013 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 329

hsa-let-7e-3p miRNA Inhibitor

MIH01014 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

hsa-let-7e-5p miRNA Inhibitor

MIH01015 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

hsa-let-7e-3p miRNA Antagomir

MNH01014 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 329

hsa-let-7e-5p miRNA Antagomir

MNH01015 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 329

hsa-let-7e RT-PCR Detection Kit

20-abx096019
  • EUR 537.00
  • EUR 732.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • 100 rxns
  • 200 rxns
  • 50 rxns

hsa-let-7e RT-PCR Primer Set

abx096773-1nmol 1 nmol
EUR 286

hsa-let-7a Primers

MPH01006 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7b Primers

MPH01007 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7c Primers

MPH01008 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7d Primers

MPH01009 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7f Primers

MPH01011 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7g Primers

MPH01012 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7i Primers

MPH01013 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7a-3p Primers

MPH02041 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7a-5p Primers

MPH02042 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7b-3p Primers

MPH02043 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7b-5p Primers

MPH02044 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7c-3p Primers

MPH02045 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7c-5p Primers

MPH02046 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7d-3p Primers

MPH02047 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7d-5p Primers

MPH02048 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7f-5p Primers

MPH02053 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7g-3p Primers

MPH02054 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7g-5p Primers

MPH02055 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7i-3p Primers

MPH02056 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7i-5p Primers

MPH02057 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7e miRNA Inhibitor

MIM01014 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

rno-let-7e miRNA Inhibitor

MIR01014 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

mmu-let-7e miRNA Antagomir

MNM01014 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 329

rno-let-7e miRNA Antagomir

MNR01014 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 329

hsa-let-7f-1-3p Primers

MPH02051 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7f-2-3p Primers

MPH02052 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7a-2-3p Primers

MPH03980 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7e RT-PCR Detection and U6 Calibration Kit

20-abx096396
  • EUR 690.00
  • EUR 954.00
  • EUR 495.00
  • 100 rxns
  • 200 rxns
  • 50 rxns

mmu-let-7e-3p miRNA Inhibitor

MIM01015 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

mmu-let-7e-5p miRNA Inhibitor

MIM01016 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

rno-let-7e-3p miRNA Inhibitor

MIR01015 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

rno-let-7e-5p miRNA Inhibitor

MIR01016 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

mmu-let-7e-3p miRNA Antagomir

MNM01015 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 329

mmu-let-7e-5p miRNA Antagomir

MNM01016 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 329

rno-let-7e-3p miRNA Antagomir

MNR01015 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 329

rno-let-7e-5p miRNA Antagomir

MNR01016 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 329

Human pre-microRNA Expression Construct let-7e

PMIRHlet7ePA-1 Bacterial Streak
EUR 684

mmu-let-7j Primers

MPM00753 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7k Primers

MPM00754 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

rno-let-7d Primers

MP-r00007 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7a Primers

MP-r00033 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7b Primers

MP-r00034 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7c Primers

MP-r00035 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7f Primers

MP-r00037 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7i Primers

MP-r00038 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

mmu-let-7a Primers

MPM00007 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7b Primers

MPM00008 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7c Primers

MPM00009 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7d Primers

MPM00010 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7f Primers

MPM00012 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7g Primers

MPM00013 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7i Primers

MPM00014 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

hsa-let-7e Real-Time RT-PCR Detection and cel-mir-39-3p Calibration Kit

20-abx097607
  • EUR 732.00
  • EUR 1038.00
  • EUR 523.00
  • 100 rxns
  • 200 rxns
  • 50 rxns

mmu-let-7a-5p Primers

MPM00736 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7b-3p Primers

MPM00737 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7b-5p Primers

MPM00738 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7c-5p Primers

MPM00741 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7d-3p Primers

MPM00742 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7d-5p Primers

MPM00743 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7f-5p Primers

MPM00748 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7g-3p Primers

MPM00749 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7g-5p Primers

MPM00750 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7i-3p Primers

MPM00751 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

mmu-let-7i-5p Primers

MPM00752 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121

rno-let-7a-5p Primers

MPR00307 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7b-3p Primers

MPR00308 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7b-5p Primers

MPR00309 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7c-5p Primers

MPR00312 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7d-3p Primers

MPR00313 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7d-5p Primers

MPR00314 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7f-5p Primers

MPR00319 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7g-3p Primers

MPR00320 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7g-5p Primers

MPR00321 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7i-3p Primers

MPR00322 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

rno-let-7i-5p Primers

MPR00323 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176

Dinitrophenyl (DNP)-HSA protein Conjugate

AV-9330-HSA 10 mg
EUR 286

hsa-let-7a miRNA Inhibitor

MIH01000 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

hsa-let-7b miRNA Inhibitor

MIH01004 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

hsa-let-7c miRNA Inhibitor

MIH01007 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

hsa-let-7d miRNA Inhibitor

MIH01010 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

hsa-let-7g miRNA Inhibitor

MIH01020 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

hsa-let-7i miRNA Inhibitor

MIH01023 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176

Although there is no evidence of genetic recombination in the strain of CPV-2c Vietnam established, positive selection of potential sites was observed in both structural and non-structural genes, showing the evolution of the virus has occurred in both structural and non-structural proteins. Genetic analysis and evolution of the full-length genome sequences need to gain insight into the evolution of CPV-2.

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