Molecular phylogenetic inference of the howler monkey radiation (Primates: Alouatta)

howler monkey (Alouatta), which comprises between nine and 14 species and ranging from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, is the most widely distributed platyrrhines. Howlers previous phylogenetic studies have used chromosome and morphological characters and a number of molecular markers; However, the branching pattern of conflict between studies or remain unresolved. We do Alouatta new phylogenetic analysis using both concatenated and tree species coalescent-based approach is based on 14 areas of nuclear non-coding intergenic unlinked.

Our taxon sampling including five of seven South American species (Alouatta Caraya, Alouatta belzebul, Alouatta Guariba, Alouatta seniculus, Alouatta sara) and two introduced species of Mesoamerica (Alouatta Pigra, Alouatta palliata). Similarly to previous studies, our phylogeny was supported clade clade Mesoamerica and South America. To howlers South America, both methods of recovering the Atlantic Forest endemic A. Guariba as brothers all remaining South American species, albeit with moderate support. In addition, we did not find support for the sister previously proposed relationship between A. and A. belzebul Guariba. For the first time, a clade consisting of A. sara and A. Caraya identified.

The relationship between other howlers South America, however, is not fully supported. Our estimates of divergence times in Alouatta generally older than the estimate in the previous study. However, they correspond to recent studies suggest Miocene age for the Isthmus of Panama and to lift the northern Andes. Our results also point to an early genetic isolation A. Guariba in the Atlantic Forest, in agreement with the hypothesis of biotic exchange in the rainforests of South America in the Miocene. Collectively, these findings will contribute to a better understanding of the process of diversification between howler monkey species; However, they also indicate that further understanding of the evolutionary history of Alouatta radiation will depend on the expanded taxonomic, geographic, and genomic sampling.

molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of genotypes of Vibrio cholerae in Hillah, Iraq

Vibrio cholerae is a serious cause of endemic diarrhea associated with cholera in many areas of the world. A total of 256 stool and rectal swabs collected from patients suspected of having cholera treated in three hospitals in Hillah, Babylon Governorate, Iraq, for the period from September 1 to December 29, 2017. After a routine culture for the isolation and identification of samples V. cholerae isolates, PCR was performed for molecular detection of V. cholerae isolates by 16S ribosomal RNA gene.

Toxigenicity detected by RTX toxin gene. PCR technique emphasizes the molecular detection of V. cholerae for eight isolates. Only two isolates (25%) is owned rtxA and rtxC gene, while only three isolates (37.5%) owned rtxB gene. DNA sequencing is done for eight isolates through analysis and phylogenetic tree. Variants of bacteria were observed compared to the reference sequence homologous their neighbors using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Server BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool; https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi).

The findings indicate that the eight isolates of V. cholerae investigated positioned in three different phylogenetic position. Partial sequence reported dissimilarities between isolates GenBank accession number MK212155.1 and six are clustered GenBank accession numbers of the same species. For the first time in Babylon governorate, Iraq, the molecular test, sequencing and phylogenetic trees were reported for V. cholerae and their toxins isolated during cholera outbreak in 2017.

 Molecular phylogenetic inference of the howler monkey radiation (Primates: Alouatta)
Molecular phylogenetic inference of the howler monkey radiation (Primates: Alouatta)

Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus 2C Vietnam clade originated from dogs revealed new Asia-IV

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a small, single-stranded DNA viruses that cause fatal bleeding enteritis in dogs. Currently, CPV-2 classified as CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c is based on genetic variation in a gene VP2. CPV-2c variant has become ubiquitous throughout the world and attention to monitor the evolution of parvoviral. In this study, we characterized the full-length genome sequences of CPV-2c strain is obtained from 59 dogs in Vietnam.

Molecular analysis revealed that Vietnam CPV-2c share the same evolutionary pattern with the Asian CPV-2 clade, which is characterized by patterns of genetic signatures of structural and non-structural proteins. Moreover, this strain of CPV-2c Vietnam Thr112Ile and Ile447Met exhibited unique mutations in the VP1 and VP2 sequence, respectively. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis showed that the mutation of amino acid residues in both structural and nonstructural genes have contributed to the emergence of a new clade, designated here as the Asian clade-IV. Substitution rate, estimated from the dataset containing 199 sequences during the last 42 years, confirmed that the CPV-2 showed a high degree of nucleotide substitution, approximately 2.49 x 10-4 nucleotide substitutions per site per year (nt / s / y), with VP1 / 2 and NS1 / 2 estimate of 3.06 x 10-4 and 3.16 x 10-4 nt / s / y, respectively.

mmu-let-7e-5p Primers

MPM00745 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7a Primers

MPH01006 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7b Primers

MPH01007 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7c Primers

MPH01008 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7d Primers

MPH01009 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7f Primers

MPH01011 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7g Primers

MPH01012 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7i Primers

MPH01013 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7a-3p Primers

MPH02041 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7a-5p Primers

MPH02042 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7b-3p Primers

MPH02043 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7b-5p Primers

MPH02044 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7c-3p Primers

MPH02045 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7c-5p Primers

MPH02046 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7d-3p Primers

MPH02047 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7d-5p Primers

MPH02048 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7f-5p Primers

MPH02053 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7g-3p Primers

MPH02054 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7g-5p Primers

MPH02055 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7i-3p Primers

MPH02056 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7i-5p Primers

MPH02057 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7f-1-3p Primers

MPH02051 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7f-2-3p Primers

MPH02052 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7a-2-3p Primers

MPH03980 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-let-7e RT-PCR Primer Set

abx096773-1nmol 1 nmol
EUR 343.2

rno-let-7d Primers

MP-r00007 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7a Primers

MP-r00033 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7b Primers

MP-r00034 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7c Primers

MP-r00035 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7f Primers

MP-r00037 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7i Primers

MP-r00038 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

mmu-let-7a Primers

MPM00007 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7b Primers

MPM00008 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7c Primers

MPM00009 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7d Primers

MPM00010 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7f Primers

MPM00012 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7g Primers

MPM00013 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7i Primers

MPM00014 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7j Primers

MPM00753 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7k Primers

MPM00754 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-1 Primers

MPH01014 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-7 Primers

MPH01976 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-9 Primers

MPH02015 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-16 Primers

MPH01191 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-17 Primers

MPH01192 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-21 Primers

MPH01259 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-22 Primers

MPH01277 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-24 Primers

MPH01294 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-25 Primers

MPH01295 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-31 Primers

MPH01329 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-32 Primers

MPH01417 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-93 Primers

MPH02022 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-95 Primers

MPH02035 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-96 Primers

MPH02036 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-98 Primers

MPH02037 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

rno-let-7a-5p Primers

MPR00307 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7b-3p Primers

MPR00308 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7b-5p Primers

MPR00309 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7c-5p Primers

MPR00312 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7d-3p Primers

MPR00313 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7d-5p Primers

MPR00314 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7f-5p Primers

MPR00319 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7g-3p Primers

MPR00320 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7g-5p Primers

MPR00321 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7i-3p Primers

MPR00322 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

rno-let-7i-5p Primers

MPR00323 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 211.2

mmu-let-7a-5p Primers

MPM00736 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7b-3p Primers

MPM00737 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7b-5p Primers

MPM00738 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7c-5p Primers

MPM00741 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7d-3p Primers

MPM00742 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7d-5p Primers

MPM00743 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7f-5p Primers

MPM00748 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7g-3p Primers

MPM00749 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7g-5p Primers

MPM00750 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7i-3p Primers

MPM00751 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

mmu-let-7i-5p Primers

MPM00752 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-100 Primers

MPH01015 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-101 Primers

MPH01016 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-103 Primers

MPH01017 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-105 Primers

MPH01019 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-107 Primers

MPH01022 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-10a Primers

MPH01023 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-10b Primers

MPH01024 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-122 Primers

MPH01045 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-124 Primers

MPH01060 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-126 Primers

MPH01082 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-128 Primers

MPH01110 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-132 Primers

MPH01144 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-134 Primers

MPH01151 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-136 Primers

MPH01154 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-137 Primers

MPH01155 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-138 Primers

MPH01156 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-141 Primers

MPH01161 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-143 Primers

MPH01164 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-144 Primers

MPH01165 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-145 Primers

MPH01166 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-147 Primers

MPH01172 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-149 Primers

MPH01178 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-150 Primers

MPH01179 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-152 Primers

MPH01182 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-153 Primers

MPH01183 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-154 Primers

MPH01187 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-155 Primers

MPH01188 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-15a Primers

MPH01189 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-15b Primers

MPH01190 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-182 Primers

MPH01197 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-183 Primers

MPH01201 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-184 Primers

MPH01202 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-185 Primers

MPH01203 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-186 Primers

MPH01204 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-187 Primers

MPH01205 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-18a Primers

MPH01208 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-18b Primers

MPH01209 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-190 Primers

MPH01210 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-191 Primers

MPH01214 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-192 Primers

MPH01221 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-194 Primers

MPH01225 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-195 Primers

MPH01226 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-197 Primers

MPH01229 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-198 Primers

MPH01238 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-19a Primers

MPH01242 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-19b Primers

MPH01243 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-202 Primers

MPH01247 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-203 Primers

MPH01248 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-204 Primers

MPH01249 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-205 Primers

MPH01250 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-206 Primers

MPH01254 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-20a Primers

MPH01257 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-20b Primers

MPH01258 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-210 Primers

MPH01260 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-211 Primers

MPH01261 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-212 Primers

MPH01268 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-214 Primers

MPH01269 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-215 Primers

MPH01270 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-218 Primers

MPH01273 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-221 Primers

MPH01281 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-222 Primers

MPH01282 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-223 Primers

MPH01283 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-224 Primers

MPH01284 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-23a Primers

MPH01291 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-23b Primers

MPH01292 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-23c Primers

MPH01293 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-26a Primers

MPH01296 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-26b Primers

MPH01297 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-27a Primers

MPH01298 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-27b Primers

MPH01299 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-297 Primers

MPH01306 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-298 Primers

MPH01307 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-29a Primers

MPH01310 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-29b Primers

MPH01311 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-29c Primers

MPH01312 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-300 Primers

MPH01313 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-30a Primers

MPH01324 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-30b Primers

MPH01325 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-30c Primers

MPH01326 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-30d Primers

MPH01327 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-30e Primers

MPH01328 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-325 Primers

MPH01431 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-326 Primers

MPH01432 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-328 Primers

MPH01433 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-329 Primers

MPH01434 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-335 Primers

MPH01439 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-33a Primers

MPH01446 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-33b Primers

MPH01447 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-340 Primers

MPH01448 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-345 Primers

MPH01451 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-346 Primers

MPH01452 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-34a Primers

MPH01453 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-34b Primers

MPH01454 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-363 Primers

MPH01486 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

hsa-miR-365 Primers

MPH01492 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 145.2

Although there is no evidence of genetic recombination in the strain of CPV-2c Vietnam established, positive selection of potential sites was observed in both structural and non-structural genes, showing the evolution of the virus has occurred in both structural and non-structural proteins. Genetic analysis and evolution of the full-length genome sequences need to gain insight into the evolution of CPV-2.

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