Molecular phylogenetic inference of the howler monkey radiation (Primates: Alouatta)

howler monkey (Alouatta), which comprises between nine and 14 species and ranging from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, is the most widely distributed platyrrhines. Howlers previous phylogenetic studies have used chromosome and morphological characters and a number of molecular markers; However, the branching pattern of conflict between studies or remain unresolved. We do Alouatta new phylogenetic analysis using both concatenated and tree species coalescent-based approach is based on 14 areas of nuclear non-coding intergenic unlinked.

Our taxon sampling including five of seven South American species (Alouatta Caraya, Alouatta belzebul, Alouatta Guariba, Alouatta seniculus, Alouatta sara) and two introduced species of Mesoamerica (Alouatta Pigra, Alouatta palliata). Similarly to previous studies, our phylogeny was supported clade clade Mesoamerica and South America. To howlers South America, both methods of recovering the Atlantic Forest endemic A. Guariba as brothers all remaining South American species, albeit with moderate support. In addition, we did not find support for the sister previously proposed relationship between A. and A. belzebul Guariba. For the first time, a clade consisting of A. sara and A. Caraya identified.

The relationship between other howlers South America, however, is not fully supported. Our estimates of divergence times in Alouatta generally older than the estimate in the previous study. However, they correspond to recent studies suggest Miocene age for the Isthmus of Panama and to lift the northern Andes. Our results also point to an early genetic isolation A. Guariba in the Atlantic Forest, in agreement with the hypothesis of biotic exchange in the rainforests of South America in the Miocene. Collectively, these findings will contribute to a better understanding of the process of diversification between howler monkey species; However, they also indicate that further understanding of the evolutionary history of Alouatta radiation will depend on the expanded taxonomic, geographic, and genomic sampling.

molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of genotypes of Vibrio cholerae in Hillah, Iraq

Vibrio cholerae is a serious cause of endemic diarrhea associated with cholera in many areas of the world. A total of 256 stool and rectal swabs collected from patients suspected of having cholera treated in three hospitals in Hillah, Babylon Governorate, Iraq, for the period from September 1 to December 29, 2017. After a routine culture for the isolation and identification of samples V. cholerae isolates, PCR was performed for molecular detection of V. cholerae isolates by 16S ribosomal RNA gene.

Toxigenicity detected by RTX toxin gene. PCR technique emphasizes the molecular detection of V. cholerae for eight isolates. Only two isolates (25%) is owned rtxA and rtxC gene, while only three isolates (37.5%) owned rtxB gene. DNA sequencing is done for eight isolates through analysis and phylogenetic tree. Variants of bacteria were observed compared to the reference sequence homologous their neighbors using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Server BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool; https://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi).

The findings indicate that the eight isolates of V. cholerae investigated positioned in three different phylogenetic position. Partial sequence reported dissimilarities between isolates GenBank accession number MK212155.1 and six are clustered GenBank accession numbers of the same species. For the first time in Babylon governorate, Iraq, the molecular test, sequencing and phylogenetic trees were reported for V. cholerae and their toxins isolated during cholera outbreak in 2017.

 Molecular phylogenetic inference of the howler monkey radiation (Primates: Alouatta)
Molecular phylogenetic inference of the howler monkey radiation (Primates: Alouatta)

Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus 2C Vietnam clade originated from dogs revealed new Asia-IV

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a small, single-stranded DNA viruses that cause fatal bleeding enteritis in dogs. Currently, CPV-2 classified as CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c is based on genetic variation in a gene VP2. CPV-2c variant has become ubiquitous throughout the world and attention to monitor the evolution of parvoviral. In this study, we characterized the full-length genome sequences of CPV-2c strain is obtained from 59 dogs in Vietnam.

Molecular analysis revealed that Vietnam CPV-2c share the same evolutionary pattern with the Asian CPV-2 clade, which is characterized by patterns of genetic signatures of structural and non-structural proteins. Moreover, this strain of CPV-2c Vietnam Thr112Ile and Ile447Met exhibited unique mutations in the VP1 and VP2 sequence, respectively. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis showed that the mutation of amino acid residues in both structural and nonstructural genes have contributed to the emergence of a new clade, designated here as the Asian clade-IV. Substitution rate, estimated from the dataset containing 199 sequences during the last 42 years, confirmed that the CPV-2 showed a high degree of nucleotide substitution, approximately 2.49 x 10-4 nucleotide substitutions per site per year (nt / s / y), with VP1 / 2 and NS1 / 2 estimate of 3.06 x 10-4 and 3.16 x 10-4 nt / s / y, respectively.

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mmu-let-7e-3p miRNA Antagomir
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rno-let-7e-3p miRNA Antagomir
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rno-let-7e-5p miRNA Antagomir
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mmu-let-7e-3p miRNA Inhibitor
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rno-let-7a Primers
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rno-let-7c Primers
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mmu-let-7a Primers
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EUR 121
mmu-let-7b Primers
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mmu-let-7f Primers
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mmu-let-7g Primers
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mmu-let-7i Primers
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mmu-let-7j Primers
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EUR 176
rno-let-7f-5p Primers
MPR00319 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 176
rno-let-7g-3p Primers
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rno-let-7g-5p Primers
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rno-let-7i-3p Primers
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mmu-let-7a-5p Primers
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EUR 121
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Dinitrophenyl (DNP)-HSA protein Conjugate
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hsa-let-7g miRNA Inhibitor
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hsa-let-7i miRNA Inhibitor
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hsa-let-7a miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7b miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7c miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7d miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7f miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7c-5p miRNA Inhibitor
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hsa-let-7d-3p miRNA Inhibitor
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hsa-let-7d-5p miRNA Inhibitor
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EUR 176
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hsa-let-7g-5p miRNA Inhibitor
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hsa-let-7a-3p miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7a-5p miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7b-5p miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7c-3p miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7c-5p miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7d-3p miRNA Antagomir
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EUR 329
hsa-let-7d-5p miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7f-5p miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7g-3p miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7g-5p miRNA Antagomir
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hsa-let-7i-3p miRNA Antagomir
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Mouse pre-microRNA Expression Construct let-7g
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hsa-let-7a RT-PCR Detection Kit
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hsa-let-7c RT-PCR Detection Kit
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hsa-let-7d RT-PCR Detection Kit
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hsa-let-7f RT-PCR Detection Kit
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hsa-let-7g RT-PCR Detection Kit
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hsa-let-7i RT-PCR Detection Kit
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hsa-let-7f RT-PCR Detection Kit
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hsa-let-7a RT-PCR Primer Set
abx096769-1nmol 1 nmol
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EUR 286
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abx096771-1nmol 1 nmol
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abx096772-1nmol 1 nmol
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abx096774-1nmol 1 nmol
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hsa-let-7g RT-PCR Primer Set
abx096775-1nmol 1 nmol
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hsa-let-7i RT-PCR Primer Set
abx096776-1nmol 1 nmol
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hsa-let-7a-2-3p miRNA Inhibitor
MIH01001 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 176
hsa-let-7f-1-3p miRNA Inhibitor
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hsa-let-7f-2-3p miRNA Inhibitor
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hsa-let-7a-2-3p miRNA Antagomir
MNH01001 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 329
hsa-let-7f-1-3p miRNA Antagomir
MNH01017 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 329
hsa-let-7f-2-3p miRNA Antagomir
MNH01018 2 x 5.0 nmol
EUR 329
hsa-miR-1 Primers
MPH01014 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121
hsa-miR-100 Primers
MPH01015 150 ul / 10 uM
EUR 121
hsa-miR-101 Primers
MPH01016 150 ul / 10 uM
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hsa-miR-103 Primers
MPH01017 150 ul / 10 uM
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hsa-miR-105 Primers
MPH01019 150 ul / 10 uM
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Although there is no evidence of genetic recombination in the strain of CPV-2c Vietnam established, positive selection of potential sites was observed in both structural and non-structural genes, showing the evolution of the virus has occurred in both structural and non-structural proteins. Genetic analysis and evolution of the full-length genome sequences need to gain insight into the evolution of CPV-2.

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